Not many first world, developed countries face the problem of water shortage, however, developing countries are often victims to this problem. A water shortage problem is a very serious issue as it leads to many repercussions in a country. It could lead to a drought, which will affect the crops being grown and well detrimentally affect the agricultural industry. As a result, crops die and there will be a shortage of food in the country, and since developing countries depend on their exports of local produce as an income, the balance of payments will also suffer as their income will reduce severely and in addition to that, the government may have no other option than to import food for its citizens. Water shortage will also lead to people getting sick as they may drink contaminated water out of desperation. This leads to the outbreak of water-borne diseases, and combined with the overall lack of drinking water, the death rate of the country will increase. To add to that, bad sanitation will get even worse, contributing to the rise of diseases in the country. In slightly more developed countries, it may not cause such a huge impact, however the production of hydro-electricity may be hindered.
Water shortage problems are often the result of a lack of rainfall in the country for a long period of time. It could also be the result of bad infrastructural planning and bad water management, which include the lack of reservoirs or a water management department in a country. If, however, a country does have reservoirs and drainage, irrigation systems etc, water shortage may be a result of water entry problems. This could be due to lack of coordination in the water management department when it comes to building an efficient and flawless reservoir. Problems with the structure of the reservoir may be a cause of this.
A country will need professionals who understand the dynamics of water management in order to deal with potential problems effectively. This will include drainage experts, irrigation experts and even physicists and architects for proper understanding to be propagated and for structural support respectively. A country should ensure that there are sufficient reservoirs built in order to collect the rainfall and in the eventuality of a bad period, distribute it properly to the country.
The government should be responsible and take steps to make sure the water isn’t wasted, and also to make sure that the dams of the reservoirs have proper structural support in order to avoid floods, which will be a massive waste of water. Conclusively, the prevention and avoidance of water related problems in a country depend on the climatic factors prevailing in the country and the government’s efficiency to handle them.